This book is meant to serve as a guide for policymakers, businesspeople, and people at large in low- and medium-income countries, along with others interested in leveraging innovation to improve the performance and social welfare of their country, region, or organisational unit. It presents a conceptual framework for understanding and learning about the principles of innovation policies and programmes in various policy contexts, with an emphasis on low and medium-income countries. It is intended primarily for policy-making communities in charge of technology, industry, science, and education, as well as economics and finance – indeed government as a whole, since innovation policy entails, by its very nature, a whole-of-government approach. Its aim is to help successful innovative firms multiply, to increase the number of sectors that perform well, and to facilitate the process of priority setting in policymaking. The book contains a set of distinct and complementary chapters and provides both policy principles and a host of examples from countries at various levels of development.