Policy Brief

Legal Frameworks for Social Enteprise: Lessons from a Comparative Study of Italy, Malaysia, South Korea, United Kingdom and United States

26 July 2017


The objective of this study is to analyse various forms and definitions under which social enterprises operate in developed and developing countries, and the implications for public policies. The study is based on a literature review and a small number of interviews clustered around five country cases of Italy, Malaysia, South Korea, United Kingdom, and the United States, where social enterprise has attracted interest from the government. It also analyses how the government has operationalized its engagement with social enterprises. Through a comparative historical method, this study provides an understanding of the various legal forms available to and adopted by social enterprises, and the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. Understanding the legal frameworks countries have put in place for social enterprise can help with assessing the merits and potential pitfalls of adopting legal definitions and forms for social enterprise.


A. Environmental Stewardship
To protect the environment, we organize programmes like mangrove nursery and Reforestation, Coastal and River Clean-Up, Community Based Environmental Solid Waste Management, Environmental IEC Campaign and Eco-Academy

B. Food Security and Sustainable Livelihood
To ensure a sustainable livelihood for the community, eco-tourism include Buhatan River Cruise Visitor Center Buhatan River Mangrove Boardwalk are run by the community. Others include Organic Vegetable and Root crops Farming, Vegetable and Root crops Chips and by-products Processing and establishing a Zero waste store.

C. Empowered Communities
To empower the community, we provide product and Agri-Enterprise Development Training, Immersion and Learnings Exchange Program, Earth Warrior Training and Community Based Social Entrepreneurship Training

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