AVPN Global Conference 2023 | 20 - 22 June 2023


Closing the Loop

SPARC is working on a nature-based decentralized sewage and wastewater system for villages adjoining waterbodies and recycling it for farming and fishing, in the peri-urban Mumbai Metropolitan Region.


Society for Promotion of Area Resource Center (SPARC)

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Social causes


SDGs covered

Endorsed by

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Market of Implementation

  • India


In peri-urban Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the villages located near water bodies do not have sewage and wastewater treatment systems. These waterbodies then become polluted, which leads to their loss of life.

The absence of sewage and wastewater treatment systems greatly affects the groundwater quality, thus impacting the health of the nearby villagers. This also leads to a loss of livelihood for people who are dependent on fishing and farming in and around these water bodies. The local government and authorities often respond to such conditions by beautifying and concretizing these water bodies, which leads to the creation of urban heat islands and loss of biodiversity in the riparian zone.

It is clear that there is a pressing need to tackle the absence of sewage and wastewater treatment systems, in peri-urban Mumbai Metropolitan Region, and Society for Promotion of Area Resource Center (SPARC) has the solution for this.


At SPARC, we aim to address the absence of sewage and wastewater treatment systems in the peri-urban Mumbai Metropolitan Region. Sewage and wastewater will be treated through nature-based decentralized solutions planned along with community-based organizations that will help reduce energy consumption and emissions. This will improve biodiversity by producing nutrient-rich water for riparian flora and fauna, thus decreasing global and local temperatures.

Villagers living near these water bodies will primarily benefit from this solution, especially those belonging to the marginalized community. The recycled water can help them augment farming and fishing activities in and around the waterbody, allowing villagers to access locally produced food during extreme events. Job opportunities as construction laborers will also be available to these villagers.

For more information on our solution, do refer to our Slide Deck.

Type of Carbon Reduced/Sequestered

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)

Amount of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Avoided/Sequestered

1270 Mg carbon/ha can be got back in the three year of the project cycle.

Means of Measurement

The carbon is sequestered by protecting the riparian zone along these waterbodies. The total area of rich riparian bio-diversity zones being protected, assuming a 3 m buffer and 1071 waterbodies in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, is around 18.68 hectares. Global research shows that at maturity, such riparian zones can hold 68-158 Mg Carbon/ha

Project’s Environment & Climate Capability

Climate Risk Reduction, Education and Training and Awareness on Climate Change, Policy and Administrative Management for Climate Change

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